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Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria is a country in southeastern Europe, which borders with Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria is Europe’s 16th-largest country.

Bulgarian flag and coat of arms (source wikipedia).

Bulgaria’s population of 7.2 million people lives mainly in cities and is concentrated in the administrative centres of its 28 provinces. Most commercial and cultural activities take place in the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are heavy industry, power engineering, and agriculture, all of which rely on local natural resources.

This is the Bulgarian anthem:

Bulgaria occupies a portion of the eastern Balkan peninsula. The state borders have a total length of 1,808 kilometres, and the coastline has a length of 354 kilometres.

The most notable topographical features are the Danubian Plain, the Balkan Mountains, the Thracian Plain, and the Rhodope Mountains. The southern edge of the Danubian Plain slopes upward into the foothills of the Balkans. The Danube river defines the border with Romania. The Thracian Plain looks triangular, beginning southeast of Sofia and broadening as it reaches the Black Sea coast.

 

                  The Danube at Rousse (source).                   The Rhodope mountains near Gela village (source).

The Balkan mountains run horizontally splitting the country into a northern and southern part. The mountainous southwest of the country has two alpine ranges—Rila and Pirin, which border the lower but massive Rhodope Mountains to the east. Bulgaria is home to the highest point of the Balkan peninsula, Musala peak, which reachest 2,925 metres. The lowest point is sea level. Plains occupy about one-third of the territory, while plateaus and hills occupy 41 per cent. The country has a dense network of about 540 rivers, most of which are relatively small and with low water level.

Musala peak (source).

Bulgaria has a dynamic climate, which results from its position at the meeting point of Mediterranean and continental air masses and the barrier effect of its mountains. Northern Bulgaria averages 1 °C (1.8 °F) cooler and registers 200 millimetres (7.9 in) more precipitation annually than the regions south of the Balkan mountains. Temperature amplitudes vary significantly in different areas. The lowest recorded temperature is −38.3 °C (−36.9 °F), while the highest is 45.2 °C (113.4 °F). Winters are usually cold and snowy (down to -10°C), and the summers are hot (usually up to 35 °C). Spring and autumn are transitional seasons, which are characterized by changing weather.

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