The history of Romania means, conventionally, the history of the Romanian geographic region as well as of the populations who lived here and which, besides the specific cultural differences and the political transformations, attributed to it a specific identity.

Fig. 1 – Current Map of Romania

Today’s territory of Romania has been inhabited since ancient times. Based on historical data, specialists estimate that the first human life manifestations on the Romanian territory date back to about 40,000 years ago.

John (Ion) from Anina is the name given by historians to an individual of the Homo Sapiens species whose remains were found in 2002 in the Oeste Cave by a group of speleologists from Timisoara in one of the 200 caves in the Anina Mountains, from Caraş-Severin County[1]. From the skeleton of Ion, a mandible was found, which is the oldest Homo Sapiens remnant of Europe discovered to date. This bone demonstrates that Ion lived about 37,000 to 42,000 years ago.

“The fact that there was a remnant of a modern man older than what was known in Western Europe has given us an indication that this region could have been a passageway in terms of spreading the Homo Sapiens population on our continent. Again, it is important because it means that in the same period, in Europe, Homo Sapiens lived in parallel with the Neanderthal man, two different species,[2] “says speleologist Silviu Constantin.

In 2011, a skull was discovered in that cave, also Homo Sapiens, named Vasile, but although they were a quite close to each other, Ion and Vasile never knew each other because they lived 14,000 years apart.

Fig 2a Ion and Vasile from Anina
Fig 2b Ion and Vasile from Anina

In 2009, following explorations in the Coliboaia cave in the Apuseni Mountains, several cave paintings were discovered. They are all black and are animal representations, including a bison, a horse, possibly a feline, two bear heads and two rhinos. It seems that the paintings were made by the prehistoric people with the help of coal. Several engravings have also been discovered and bones have been found on the floor. Because of this, it was found that during their stay in the cave, the bears scratched the walls.[3] The group of specialists discovered that the paintings of the Coliboaia Cave are the oldest paintings not only in Europe, but also around the world, from a very old age, measured in thousands of years, between 23,000 and 35,000 years, parietal “, older than the famous Altamira paintings in Spain, Laas Gaal in Somalia, Chauvet and Lascaux in France.[4]

Fig. 3 – The cave paintings of the Coliboaia Cave

Romania is a state located in south-eastern Central Europe, on the lower course of the Danube, north of the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western shore of the Black Sea.

[1] http://turism-anina.blogspot.ro/2013/07/ion-din-anina-primul-om-din-europa.html

[2] http://jurnalul.ro/campaniile-jurnalul/descoperirea-romaniei/ion-din-anina-primul-om-din-europa-41405.html

[3] https://financiarul.ro/2013/08/20/pestera-coliboaia-cele-mai-vechi-picturi-rupestre-din-europa/

[4] http://hartacomorii.blogspot.ro/2014/07/top-10-pesteri-cu-picturi-rupestre.html

Origins of country
Main events in Modern History
Joining the EU
Main holidays

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